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  1.      1 #

    Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System


    Satoshi Nakamoto

    satoshin@gmx.com

    www.bitcoin.org


    Abstract. A purely peer-to-peer version of electronic cash would allow online payments to be sent directly from one party to another without going through a financial institution. Digital signatures provide part of the solution, but the main benefits are lost if a trusted third party is still required to prevent double-spending. We propose a solution to the double-spending problem using a peer-to-peer network. The network timestamps transactions by hashing them into an ongoing chain of hash-based proof-of-work, forming a record that cannot be changed without redoing the proof-of-work. The longest chain not only serves as proof of the sequence of events witnessed, but proof that it came from the largest pool of CPU power. As long as a majority of CPU power is controlled by nodes that are not cooperating to attack the network, they'll generate the longest chain and outpace attackers. The network itself requires minimal structure. Messages are broadcast on a best effort basis, and nodes can leave and rejoin the network at will, accepting the longest proof-of-work chain as proof of what happened while they were gone.


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  2.      2 #

    比特币白皮书中文版

    摘要:本文提出了一种完全通过点对点技术实现的电子现金系统,它使得在线支付能够直接由一方发起并

    支付给另外一方,中间不需要通过任何的金融机构。虽然数字签名部分解决了这个问题,但是如果仍然需

    要第三方的支持才能防止双重支付的话,那么这种系统也就失去了存在的价值。我们在此提出一种解决方

    案,使现金系统在点对点的环境下运行,并防止双重支付问题。该网络通过随机散列对全部交易加上时间

    戳,将它们合并入一个不断延伸的基于随机散列的工作量证明的链条作为交易记录,除非重新完成全部的

    工作量证明,形成的交易记录将不可更改。最长的链条不仅将作为被观察到的事件序列的证明,而且被看

    做是来自CPU 计算能力最大的池。只要大多数的CPU 计算能力都没有打算合作起来对全网进行攻击,那

    么诚实的节点将会生成最长的、超过攻击者的链条。这个系统本身需要的基础设施非常少。信息尽最大努

    力在全网传播即可,节点可以随时离开和重新加入网络,并将最长的工作量证明链条作为在该节点离线期

    间发生的交易的证明。


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